Promise (short story)

A cell phone rings.

After staring at the glowing name, the familiar icon, the face of someone who meant something, after sitting up with a sheet draped over his naked lap, after hearing the ring start and stop twice, after hearing it ring again, a man picks up the phone and answers.

Hello?

The woman in the bed next to him moves but doesn’t wake.

He stands and walks toward the bathroom, trimmed with small, open bottles of lotion, shampoo, and mouthwash, cleaned with bleach, covered with walls and a door that could hide no sound, too thin to give him the privacy he needed.

He tells his wife that he will be heading home, leaving San Diego, or San Francisco, today, and, yes, driving the car since Mr. Thomas doesn’t trust that people should or can fly. No. No stopping in hotels on the way back. Just want to get home. Yes, I know it’s a long drive. Will sleep in the car. Save money. Time to think.

He hangs up the phone after the usual goodbyes, etc., looks at the woman in his bed, feels guilt, dark, heavy, cringing. It seemed like a good idea. His wife refused to, or wouldn’t be, or hadn’t been intimate with him for…weeks? The new baby. A three-year-old. One in school in a couple of weeks. It seemed like years. 5 or 6 maybe since his wife, since they had talked. Did she care? Would she notice if he were there?

He felt empty.

The long route.

He needed to think: What would he tell his wife? Would he? She needed to know. Didn’t she? He could pretend like it never happened. Couldn’t he? She wouldn’t know. Would she?

Maybe they should d—, no! They promised. They would always try to work things out. Of course, they said that seven, no, eight years ago, when they were first dating, when they were married, in the beginning. Everything seemed so much easier then. Friends. They were friends in the beginning. They could talk about everything and anything. Talk all of the time. Miss appointments to talk and to, yes, and to make love to, no, with each other. Promise. They promised they would make it because friends know how to make it.

But people change. Promises evolve. Don’t they? Maybe even disintegrate. That was the word, or, maybe, something like dissolve. Sort of like throwing bread into water.

He drove into the desert.

She called.

“Just wanted you to know that Baby has allergies. No more penicillin. K?”

“K.”

They give up conversing after that. He says he needs gas. He pulls over into the next gas station just to prove his point to himself, even though he still has 10 gallons. He goes into the station store and buys a magazine—the kind with bodies, photo-shopped for his pleasure, not his wife, healthy, younger, leaner, pure-looking, clean. No messy relationship.

Just there.

Is that all? the clerk asks, annoyed.

I need some gas, too.

K.

The man looks at the pictures before he gets into the car and continues his long journey home. Wow, she’s hot!

A woman on the other side of the island looks at him with concern.

He throws the magazine in the back of his car and drives away.

When dark, the man decides to sleep in his car. Only part of the night. He sees the glow of the sun before it finds its way to his side of the earth, the sky becoming pink sherbet with dashes of orange. As the sun pulls farther up, he sees the shadows it creates from the mountains, the desert plants, the rocks and cactus formations. A cross, left by a friar some five hundred years ago, in the middle of his view, casting a shadow on the snake holes and scorpions.

He feels accused. He couldn’t wait to start driving, to head back home where it was green.

He sings a song with the person on the radio, who can’t judge whether or not he sings well, so he sings even louder, pounds on the steering wheel harder, feeling somewhat free.

He listens to the news for a while and looks at passing cars, feeling like he should try to remain unseen.

He eats some jerky, some coffee with a little cream, and some protein bars.

The dirt on his skin, from not having a shower, starts to feel gritty and greasy. He rubs his eyes, and they sting. He squints and begins to sniffle, finding another gas station just as he was about to lose hope that he would be able to drive any further.

He buys some baby wipes, thinks about the new baby, Carmel, and wonders where she got her allergy. Is it genetic? Did they do something wrong? He pulls out a wipe and cleans his face, tossing out the thoughts on baby with the used wipe.

God! This drive was starting to feel lonely. He should try to talk to somebody at the next station, just so he could get some feedback…about anything. How many more miles did he have to travel? 20? 30? 100?

His wife calls again.

This time, Baby’s okay, getting better. She tells him that she really misses him. He thinks it’s because she wants a break. She just wants him to babysit, he knows. But, he tells her that he misses her, too. Guilty again. He lies because he feels like he can never tell her what he really thinks and feels. She tells him to call her if he gets bored. Like he hadn’t already reached that state. But he can’t think of anything to say to her, so he never calls.

He passes the town where he and his dad went one time for Boy Scout camp. His dad could be such a jerk. He got yelled at for not… well, he couldn’t remember now, but he was sure that his dad was not being very dad-like. Although, he could remember what his dad said later…son, remember to be a man who keeps his promises.

But, I can’t dad! the man yells to the stale air in the car. Dad, it’s not possible.

A tear started to form, and possibly decided to start a stream down his face, but he wiped it away before it could go too far, but another just fell down the same way. His dad died fourteen, no, fifteen months ago…today. You see.

Cancer. At least that’s what they called it. Not quick like heart disease. Not enough to numb a person, like stroke. Not in his sleep. Slow, painful, eating away. He hated seeing such a great man wither, fade away, anguish. Pain.

His wife calls.

He wished he would have called first. He wished he would have picked up the phone and told her how much it hurts him to think about his dad. Women get those things. Don’t they? But he couldn’t. He can’t. He’s afraid that she won’t listen, that she won’t understand, that she can’t be there in his heart to take away his pain. She won’t get it.

“Lori said that she will watch the kids, so we can go out when you get back.”

“Out?” Sure. Right. Something would come up. It always comes up.

“Yah. I don’t think we’ve gone out, just the two of us, for, well, I don’t know how long.”

Try five or six years.

“Maybe we could spend the night in a hotel, just like we talked.”

“Talked?”

“At Christmas, Silly. We got that gift certificate for that really nice hotel, with breakfast in bed. Remember?”

“Oh yah. Right.”

She pauses. “You know, I really miss you.”

Why does she keep saying that? She makes him feel more like a creep with each passing word. Is she trying to trick him into telling her? God! She’s so innocent. Oblivious. She doesn’t even know.

He stops at the next rest station, pulls out the flattened girl magazine, and throws it in the trash. It started to feel like a hive of wasps, waiting to attack, buzzing back there in the back seat. He couldn’t handle it anymore. He hated seeing women treated that way. What made him think to buy something so cheap and cheapening.

This time, when he stopped at the next gas station multiplex, he bought a landscaping and garden magazine with a special project, window boxes, inside. His wife always said that she wanted a window box outside the kitchen for her herbs, but he never seemed to get to it. Work. Always working. But, he was going to make it work, dammit! He was going to make her feel better, even though she doesn’t know why she should feel bad.

“Are you doing okay?”

“Yah. Why?”

“You just seem so distant.”

He chuckles.

“No. You know what I mean. It just doesn’t seem like we can talk about much, lately. I mean…are you sure you’re okay?”

“Yah. I’m fine…How are you?” He felt stupid for saying something so lame.

“Well, I wish we could talk, you know, about stuff.”

Uh-huh. “What kind of stuff?”

“Like how you feel….you think about, oh, I don’t know.”

“I don’t know either.”

“I’ve gotta go pick up M. Can we talk tonight? Before you take a break and sleep on the side of the road? Do you know what time that will be?”

“Oh, I don’t know. I’ll try calling you tonight when I stop.”

“Oh, kay. Love you.”

“You too.”

He didn’t call.

He tried to sleep instead.

He tossed.

The car felt even more uncomfortable, unforgiving, and confining than before.

He got out.

Stretched his legs.

He walked around, circling the car.

Why was she being so nice?

And, why am I being such a jerk?

He kicked the back tire.

“Dammit!”

“What the fuck am I doing?”

He kicked the tire again and again and again.

He began to cry, but hated it, so he picked up some pebbles and dirt and threw them in the field…because it felt good to throw dirt and rocks.

He sighed, slumped, and sat by the back wheel of the car.

“What the hell am I doing?” he crackled as he wiped the tears from his face.

He heard the phone ring.

His wife.

“Hello?”

“Are you okay?”

“I’m so sorry,” he whispered.

“What?”

“I’m so sorry, honey,” he said louder.

“I don’t get it. Why?”

He said something inaudible and gargled, trying to get it all out before he lost his nerve. All she could hear was the ending, “Will you ever be able to forgive me?”

“Forgive you?” She thought about it. He sounded so distressed; she didn’t want to ask why. “I will always forgive you. That’s what we promised to do.”

Promised.

He suddenly remembered a field of grass, surrounded by protective trees holding out the prying eyes, a warm day, the smell of fresh flowers and new rain. His wife. Her loving eyes. Her body, alluring after making love twice. Her smile magnetic. Her mind, teasing him that day.

“I…I, uh…I cheated on you. Why did I cheat on you?”

Silence.

“I understand if you are mad at me. I’m mad at myself. I….” He wanted to make an excuse, but she wasn’t talking, so he stopped.

“I’m so sorry, Beth. Please forgive me.”

“I_ _ _ _I gotta go,” her voice cracked, and she hung up.

He called her the next morning.

She wouldn’t answer the phone.

Now, he wanted to talk to her, tell her everything—his dad, his pain, his missing her, his vulnerable feeling, but she wouldn’t call, and she wouldn’t let him call her in return.

That day, though there were more signs of life and cared for properties, the day went by slow and fast at the same time. He wanted to get home, but he didn’t. He wanted to get there in a time before she knew, before he’d told her, no, before he had done what he had done. If he drove fast enough, would his car become a time machine, time, space, relativity. Take back the time, the awful choice, the really stupid, disheartening, disloyal…stupidity.

He tried to sleep that night—alone. Lonely.

“Please God. Tell me what to do.”

“I didn’t mean to hurt my wife.”

“I wasn’t even thinking about that.”

“Shit!”

“I was only thinking of myself.”

He didn’t sleep.

The next day, the road looked tired, or maybe, that was him, tired, drowsy, blurry, lines moving that don’t ever seem to go straight.

He tried calling her again, after he filled the car with gas, after he checked the tires for air, after he washed the windows, after he checked the oil, after he made sure the registration was still good.

She answered softly.

“Beth?”

“Yah.”

“Are you okay?”

“Yah, no. Not really.”

Pause.

“You’re my best friend, Sam. How could….Did you tell me….” She sighed. “You’ve been gone for so long, and we, well we haven’t been talking so well, and your dad…is it because of your dad?”

“No. It was just me. It was stupid, Beth. I’ve felt guilty…I mean. I don’t know. I don’t know how to talk to you.”

“I’m right here, Sam, listening.”

“If you hate me for the rest of my life—that’s okay. I understand. I hate myself.”

“Sam. I honestly don’t know how we can get over this one.”

He started crying. “I’m so sorry, Beth. I never meant to hurt you.”

A confusion of storm.

The phone call ended.

Sam journeyed through each state, talking to his wife through each one, asking her to tell him a story to help the journey not feel so long.

She told him the story of two people, who met, a starry night at a high-school bonfire, how they went to college together, married their third year there, moved to a tiny house, and welcomed a third, tiny person, to their family. How the man got a job, got busy. How the wife got overwhelmed, too busy to stay awake when he was home. How his dad died. How his dad died…painfully. How kids were so happy, so innocent, doing good in school, learning ABCs, crawling on the floor. How they felt so far apart even when they were in the same bed. How he’d talk, she’d barely respond. How she’d take step toward him, he’d move the other way.

“Sam, I forgive you. Please forgive me.”

He made it home after days and days on that journey.

They talked, they laughed, they loved as he drove closer and closer to home.

As he pulled into the driveway, he slammed on the brakes, jumped out of the car as his wife opened the front door, and they made love in the shower, renewed promises, talked and loved and talked some more, their friendship endured.

He woke up.

It wouldn’t work out that way.

He didn’t know what to do.

He looked out of the roadside restaurant window, at the intersection of many roads, roads that all led to somewhere. He watched all the peopled cars, choosing their path, pondering what the word “promise” meant.
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Copyright 2014

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Science Fiction Literature in the Secondary Classroom

Originally posted on CLA Portfolio:

This post discusses the qualities, impact, and importance of science fiction in the 21st century classroom. First, I provide four types of science fiction that can most easily adapt to lesson planning. Then, I give some background on science fiction in order to elucidate further what can be taught with these four types of science fiction. After that, I give qualities of each type of science fiction in order to teach and to have students analyze literature. And finally, I give some examples of employing technology integration that can easily extend learning for science fiction studies.

Discovering science fiction, types and qualities

Once written, a literary work becomes an artifact. Because the genre of science fiction has become popular and somewhat loosely defined in relatively recent times (as compared to epics, lyrical poetry, law, etc.), scholars are just now looking at science fiction works from the past with literary analysis…

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Describing the difference between white elitism and white privilege so that no one thinks I hate “white” people (reconstructing feminism)

Because of a lively discussion I had recently, I discovered that it is really important for me to describe the difference between my usages of “white elitism” and “white privilege” because, above all, I want to avoid misunderstanding and hate. As some of my regular readers already know, I am part Cherokee but am considered “white” by some census assessments.

Indeed, I have found the term “white” to be meaningless and useless, sometimes derogatory for most discussions on race, especially since I live in a country where most people have a considerable amount of mixed ancestry. The term “white” has also changed throughout American history; for instance, Hispanic peoples were at one time categorized under the term “white.” Why the change? I don’t know. Now the popular thing to do seems to be to put headings of non-Hispanic white (which includes people from the Middle East and North Africa) and non-Hispanic black on one table while Hispanic peoples are placed on a separate table. So, Americans are either Hispanic or not, basically, or something.

Whatever. Like I’ve said in previous posts, at a certain point, the terms of race in order to make an argument become too ambiguous, and often too heated, to get anything meaningful said or done.

That said, there is a very small group of white feminists who have created a theory called “white privilege,” which has created, in my mind, problems. There you have it. You already know what I think about the theory of “white privilege.” Will you stop reading, or will you find out why?

White privilege

White privilege is based on what people have, not on what they think, say, or do. Having ranges from “white” colored band-aid access to a house with neighbors you like. [I am just going off of what I have read from the original theorist].

The theory of white privilege set a standard for what people should have or what people have the right to have.

The standard was set by someone who may have suffered from “white elitism” based on her description of what white people have that others don’t, based on the fact that she was able to publish her article quite easily, and based on the university she attended.

The standard casts all “white” people in the shadow of suspicion, as people who are withholding something or secretly obtaining what they don’t want others to have; all white people, especially men, are unjust and act unjustly, according to the theory.

This is the same problem as suggesting that all “white” people in the US were slave-owners. No, they weren’t. Most “white” people in the US were not slave-holders. Most “white” people who came to the US were poor; they were looking for jobs, escaping religious persecution, or quite simply, looking for freedom. Large migrations of “white” people to the US occurred right before and after slavery was outlawed. In fact, I am going to suggest a new startling theory that if the extensive “white” migration that occurred in the mid-19th century and afterwards had not happened, the standard in the US South might still be that of slavery. My point, the majority of whites in the US were never involved in the slave business that existed in certain regions of the US.

On the flip side, the standard tells all non-“white” people what they must have in order to be accepted in the community that is majority “white.” Thus, in theory, all people who don’t have what “white privilege” says they should have lack something important. For example, if the “white” standard for the number of children to have is two, then all races must have only two children per household. If the “white” standard for recreation is baseball, then all races must meet the standard. All people must try to meet the standard, according to the proposed “white privilege” theory.

However, most “white” people do not even live up to the “white privilege” standard.

The “white privilege” standard was created by a very small group of “white” people who are highly “privileged,” so much so we might be able to say that they live in a bubble that brings them infrequently in contact with people who make less than the top 1%. Can we honestly say that they have an accurate picture of the general population? Might some of them suffer from post-slaveholder guilt because their families actually may have owned slaves? Might they be trying to project this guilt onto those who are not at fault?

All people will feel confined or oppressed by the standard proposed by “white privilege.” It has cast legalism, segregation, and limitations on race. This is why those who often consider themselves liberal are actually dogmatics and fundamentalists parading around as liberals; they actually seek conformity and assimilation, using the English language in order to manipulate and control people.

The effects of the white privilege standard

Either people will be running to the “white privilege” standard because they believe they lack something if they do not attain what “whites” are portrayed as having or people will be running away from or feeling guilt about the “white privilege” standard because they feel like they have a target on their head—they’ve been convicted without trial.

Thus, we have a rise in “white” suicide because those who consider themselves white feel guilty for being alive or have no purpose because their “whiteness” just causes trouble.

We have a declining “white” population because white people are afraid to procreate.

We have a loss of identity in the “white” population because “white privilege” has created a boring, sterile standard.

We have a rise in those who hate “whites” simply for being white. The “white privilege” standard has the potential to lead to genocide because it has aimed fault and hatred toward one race or color.

Some Latino (or Hispanic) feminists charge the “white” standard as being the problem in public education, for example. They see the anti-family attitude, materialism, the hyper-sexualization, and the sterilization of culture/religion as mainstream “white” culture, whereas many so-called whites see those problems of public education as really problematic, too.

In Catholic speak, some Hispanic feminists are actually making charges against the culture of death, which most “whites,” as far as I can tell, are not in favor of the culture of death either. But, the culture of death is being attributed to all “whites.” Some Hispanic writers fear the assimilation to this standard—the culture of death or “white privilege.” This is a source for misunderstanding because some political thinkers are afraid that some Hispanic immigrants don’t really want to be American–assimilation is being defined in different ways. One group sees it as people trying to push the culture of death; others see it as the path to embrace the culture of life. There is much confusion here because people are not clarifying how they are using terms.

One way to look at this is to see how the KKK has historically defined what it means to be an American—white, Protestant, male-dominated. Some white feminists have used that very standard to describe what being “white” means. They made the assumption and gross generalization that all “white” people in the US are male-domineering ,un-christian Protestants. People either react in revulsion to this “white” standard, rightly so, or try to get what they think the “whites” have so as not to be persecuted.

So then, we have those who are trying to blend into the “white privilege” standard because they think that discrimination towards their race will end if they become more “white” or hold the same standards as “whites” as proposed by the white privilege theory.

Finally, we have this problem of feminists who likely suffer from “white elitism” who created an American standard of “white privilege” in the US that avoids entirely the standard of freedom set by The Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, and the Constitution, which most Americans try to hold as the standard based on the knowledge they have of that ideal.

White elitism

White elitism is a mentality or attitude that employs and ends in oppressive actions. Rather than being based on what people have or don’t have, it is based on what people say and, more importantly, on what they do to others directly or indirectly.

A person from any race, culture, background, or religion can suffer from “white elitism”—it is a spiritual malady. A “white elitist” suffers in thinking like an elitist just as the people the “white elitist” chooses to harm, manipulate, or squelch will suffer.

Since this is a discussion within the US forum of ideas, we can trace the problem of “white elitism” as far back as 1366 (The Statutes of Kilkenny), then again to Oliver Cromwell (1649) and other Anglo-political rulers who wanted to “breed-out” the Irish from Ireland, to destroy Spain (in reputation and materially), and to suppress the Catholics in general (publishing houses, education, etc.). Incidentally, “white elitism” began to spread in the 19th century with the theories of Malthus, portions of Darwin, Marx, Nietzsche, Freud, and eugenics promoters as the British Empire grew. Other examples of carrying white elitism to its extreme are Hitler and the Holocaust or Stalin and his purgings or Mao and his culture cleaning.

One of the first characteristics of “white elitism” is that it sees its own culture and thinking as superior to all others—people with this mentality feel more “privileged” than others—they think they have it all figured out and will tell others what to do and be and have in order to fit in.

This superiority complex leads to population control (eugenics), done through communication, property, the economy and politics (policy).

Since many Anglo writers suffered from “white elitism” because publishing houses and trade routes were dominated by Anglo politicians during the Industrial Revolution and after, many people took on or have reacted to the Anglo or “white elitism” worldview.

Please note: Other cultures have sought to dominate other peoples, starting as far back as the Ancient World, by having the same elitist mentality as conveyed by “white elitism.” So far, the discussion here has included Saxons, Russians, and Asians as well. In fact, the only place in the world that saw a sharp decline in elitism for a time was Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire, attributed to Christianity, until the Reformation. That is, “white elitism,” again, is not confined to “whites” or a problem attributed solely to “whites” historically. I only include the term “white” because “white privilege” theorists have set a standard of “whiteness,” a standard that requires deconstruction as well as bridging for communication, alleviation, and understanding.

Americans, in particular, might be susceptible to this “white elitist” mentality or the reaction to this mentality since American public education devoted several decades to an English-only education; the English-only education, since it did little to translate literature from other cultures, gave most Americans the Anglo worldview; the English-only education, also, subtracted the Christian portion of Anglo thinking since public education was supposed to remain secular; to that end, most human literature could no longer be discussed in American public schools because subtracting all other languages and Christian literature limits the options considerably. That said, I think only a small portion of Americans suffer from “white elitism.”

The mentalities and effects of white elitism

Dualism—elitists force themselves to make choices between two; they cannot marry the two, see a continuum when it exists, nor can they find a moderating position; it is either man or woman; man is all evil and woman is all good; black or white; Hispanic or not; labor or capital; body or spirit; government or religion; faith or science; emotion or science; puritanistic or promiscuous/perverted; now or the future; now or the past; city or country; community or individual; family or society; educated or not; all continuum or not; include or exclude; all is ambiguous or not; all is disorder or not; racist or not; for women or not; master or slave.

Tyranny—technocratic elitism is another way to see this; technocratic elitists often think that they have the solutions to each person’s problems; they are micro-managers; they often, coincidentally, make a lot of time for personal recreation and support, loving leisure and self-indulgence above all else; they experiment on societies often and are indifferent to the results since the results don’t affect them personally; they control communication venues (publishing houses, media companies, etc.) because they must constantly try to uphold their reputation in order to have influence in a democracy; they often equate number of years in school to level of education, in which case, they get as many years as they can; they usually feel that the “modern” man today automatically knows more than or is superior to every single person from the past—they are poor judges of historical context because they want to control the historical narrative; they don’t mind taking away someone else’s property; they protect themselves but don’t care if others can keep themselves protected; tyrants often base their principles on taste/style/trends; another word for tyranny is snobbery.

Legalism—white elitists try to make everything they believe a law that everyone must obey; because many of their ideas of “law” are relative to themselves (morally relative), we end up with pages and pages of law that often contradict each other; they complicate by creating strange standards that are created to serve themselves and their whims.

Sterility—because white elitism puts limitations on cultures both through the legal system and by creating false standards, cultures and peoples end up having a sterile mentality; they no longer want to procreate; they can no longer come up with creative ideas; they destroy, obscure, or hide talents; and, yes, “white elitism” is rooted in the culture of death, my Catholic friends. In this case, “white” comes to mean “sterile” or colorless or bleached or whatever helps the discussion.

Schooled in elitism—because some white elitists teach with a worldview of elitism, many students try to look at the world with an air of condescension towards certain groups of people; they might arrogate themselves above people from the past; they might arrogate themselves based on the number of certificates they hold; they might arrogate themselves based on the number of classes they have attended; they might arrogate themselves for belonging to the right political party; teachers who teach with the elitist worldview just put their students’ minds back in the dualistic mind-frame, perhaps from the other side, but dualistic it still is.

Why “white elitism” might be a better way to discuss our cultural problems:

1. It avoids judgmentalism: It does not condemn an entire race. You also cannot make assumptions about people based on external qualities and categories.

2. It avoids generalization: It keeps people talking about specific harmful or good actions and their possible causes rather than looking at an entire people as oppressive or oppressed.

3. It further clarifies the problem of dualism and divisiveness: Instead of resorting to either/or discussions that are invariably the result of “white privilege” discussions, the discussion can rise above this mentality to show the harm of dualism.

4. It asks people to keep the debate in the realm of ideas: It does not intend to stir the fires of anger that will lead to violence or hatred because it helps the discussion remain concerned with attitudes, facts, and actions, not making the assumption that people are white elitist or not. Evidence must be given to show that a person suffers from “white elitism.”

5. It allows people to be grateful for the actual, humane contributions of those who have been or are termed “white” as well as those who are not termed “white.” It also allows Americans, who often employ ideas from several cultures, to continue to enjoy the contributions from several cultures simultaneously if so desired.

6. People who suffer from white elitism are redeemable because mentalities and hearts can change whereas “white privilege” automatically condemns people based on their race without evidence or reason for condemnation.

7. You can hate the actions and argue with the ideas of those who suffer from “white elitism,” but you can still love the person. Remember, people with a “white elitist” mentality are not necessarily white.

8. White elitism is a spiritual malady, an illness—the cure is prayer, an invocation of the light of reason during discussion, patience, and continued love.

9. More properly understood, white elitism is elitism, which is rooted in pride, greed, and vanity; however, the terms of vice carry little weight in secular discussion, so the term “white elitism” might be able to create the much needed bridge for understanding. Just make sure to define the parameters.

10. Moving away from mentalities of “white elitism” will hopefully encourage human flourishing and creativity since it asks people to look at attitudes, facts, and actions with honesty and humility, being grateful for variety in cultures and for persons, allowing humanity to grow more humane.

If you believe that describing the terms in this way is a cause for further division rather than a source for helping communication in our culture, please let me know.

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Copyright 2014

Notes and References:

Armenio, PV (2005). The History of the Catholic Church: A Complete Course. James Socias, ed. Midwest Theological Forum: Woodridge, Illinois.

Mondale, S. and Patton, SB (2001). School: The story of American public education. Beacon Press: Boston.

Nieto, S (2010). The light in their eyes: Creating multicultural learning communities, 10th anniversary edition. Teachers College Press: New York.

Valdes, G (1996). Con Respeto: Bridging the Distances between Culturally Diverse Families and Schools, An Ethnographic Portrait. Teachers College Press: New York.

Approximate numbers (US Census):
1808—importation of slaves was made illegal, though some did not obey the law
1810–7.2 million total US population: 1.3 million African Americans; 75% of African Americans in Delaware were free
1850—23 million total US population: 3.6 million African Americans.
1860—31.4 million total US population: 4.4 million African Americans: 385,000 people owned slaves (What a small percentage of our historical population is this!)
1861-1865—640, 000 to 700, 000 people die during the Civil War; 110, 000 men die in combat, fighting on the side of the Union; 20,000 African Americans die, fighting for the Union; 95,000 men die in combat for the Confederate South
1862—Emancipation Proclamation
1865—13th Amendment ends slavery; KKK forms that same year
1869—15th Amendment, African American males obtain voting privileges; no woman can vote at this time
1870—39.8 million total US population: 4.8 million African Americans
1880—50.1 million total US population: 6.5 million African Americans
1890—62.9 million total US population: 7.4 million African American
1900—75.9 million total US population: 8.8 million African American; 30,000 Black American teachers have been trained, bringing the literacy rate up to half of the population by this time

http://www.blackpast.org/timelines/african-american-history-timeline-1800-1900

Number of slaveholders. http://civilwarcauses.org/stat.htm

http://www.historynet.com/civil-war-casualties

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/immigration-statistics.htm

Immigration numbers (1850+). http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0029/tab04.html

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love (poem)

my being,

moved

to experience

joy,

meets love, loving in return

——————–

Copyright 2014

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